Instructions: STUDY WHILE READING • Study the content in the Learning Asset document entitled From the Plantation of Ulster to Present-Day Ireland and Northern Ireland. You can download this Learning Asset as a PDF by clicking HERE. The document offers a limited but useful introduction to: (1) how the Ulster Scots or Scots-Irish originated as an ethno-religious group during the early-seventeenth-century Plantation of Ulster; and (2) how we can relate the Ulster-Scots to the present-day political reality on the island of Ireland, where two jurisdictions exist. One is the self-governing, fully independent Republic of Ireland (Éire), and the other is Northern Ireland, one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom. As you study, pay special attention to words and phrases highlighted in yellow and to information contained in diagrams.
Estimated time to complete the task: 15 minutes.
Instructions: ASSESS YOUR KNOWLEDGE • Take the comprehension quiz labeled Exam: From Plantation to Now, which you can find on the Folio page for this course. The quiz tests the material covered in the Learning Asset document, From the Plantation of Ulster to Present-Day Ireland and Northern Ireland, which you studied during Week 1, Unit 2, Task 1 (above).
Estimated time to complete the task: 20 minutes.
Instructions: STUDY WHILE WATCHING • Study the content in the Learning Asset video entitled Study Ireland 5: Plantation of Ulster. The video appears below, but you may also access it on YouTube by clicking HERE. While the playback quality isn’t as good as one would wish, the content of the 19-minute video is both scholarly and understandable. One of the contributors is A.T.Q. Stewart, a noted Ulster academic, who taught Irish history at Queen’s University Belfast and who died in 2010.
The video opens with a discussion of the English victory over the native (or Gaelic) Irish warlords in the Nine Years’ War, during the latter part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England. On the Irish side, the two major Ulster warlords were Hugh O’Neill of Tyrone and Hugh Roe O’Donnell of Tyrconnell. (Hugh Roe — also written as Aodh Rua — means Red Hugh.)
In early 1602, O’Neill and O’Donnell’s forces suffered a seminal defeat at the Battle of Kinsale (in County Cork), which precipitated O’Neill’s surrender to England’s Lord Deputy (or principal administrator) in Ireland, Lord Mountjoy. The post-conflict agreement between O’Neill and Mountjoy is called the Treaty of Mellifont, signed in 1603. O’Neill managed to subsist in Ireland until September 4, 1607, on which day he and Hugh Roe O’Donnell’s successor (his brother, Rory O’Donnell) permanently exiled themselves and around 90 followers to mainland Europe. This leave-taking is called the Flight of the Earls, and it is seen as the deathblow to the Gaelic Order (way of life) in Ireland.
With the O’Neill and O’Donnell dynasties severely compromised, Queen Elizabeth I’s successor, King James VI & I, sought to plant their lands — and other Gaelic lands — in Ulster with English and Scottish settlers who followed the Protestant faith, whether as Episcopalians or Presbyterians. James (of the royal house of Stuart) was a Scottish cousin to the unmarried and childless Elizabeth (of the royal house of Tudor). When Elizabeth died in 1603 (just before Hugh O’Neill’s surrender to Mountjoy), he was already King James VI of Scotland, but her death made him, in addition, King James I of England, a title that brought the so-called Kingdom of Ireland with it. James’s official Plantation of Ulster began in 1609; however, some smaller-scale private plantations in the province had begun as early as 1606, before the Flight of the Earls.
Estimated time to complete the task: 20 minutes.
Instructions: ASSESS YOUR KNOWLEDGE • Take the comprehension quiz labeled Exam: Overview of the Plantation, which you can find on the Folio page for this course. The quiz tests the material covered in the Learning Asset video, Study Ireland 5: Plantation of Ulster, which you studied during Week 1, Unit 3, Task 1 (above). It also tests the explanatory material in bold type on our course webpage under Week 1, Unit 3, Task 1. (The first term in bold type in that section is A.T.Q. Stewart.)
Estimated time to complete the task: 30 minutes.
Instructions: STUDY WHILE READING • Study the content in the Learning Asset document entitled Dispossession and Reaction: The Gaelic Literati and the Plantation of Ulster. The document is a short, illustrated piece, written by Marc Caball and published in the November-December 2009 issue of the magazine History Ireland. You can download this Learning Asset as a PDF by clicking HERE.
Caball’s starting point is the Flight of the Earls: the departure from Ireland by Hugh O’Neill, Rory O’Donnell, and their circle in 1607. The author claims that “trauma” (page 25) affected Ulster’s Gaelic community as a result of: (1) the Flight; and (2) an unsuccessful anti-British rebellion the following year, led by a remaining Gaelic lord, Cahir O’Doherty. The trauma intensified once the British authorities introduced their royal scheme, the Plantation of Ulster, designed to dispossess Ulster’s indigenous people of their lands in order to plant English and Scottish settlers on them. Due to the Plantation, Gaelic culture and the Catholic faith became severely threatened in Ulster, which had been a very Gaelic province.
A distinctive feature of the Gaelic cultural system (also referred to as the Gaoidhil) was the patronage of bards or learned poets (i.e. the literati) by chieftain families, such as the O’Neills of Tyrone and the O’Donnells of Tyrconnell. The radical diminishment of the Gaoidhil in the early seventeenth century gave rise to a body of Irish-language poems characterized by grief, despondency, and lamentation. The Irish-language (or Gaeilge) noun for a lament is caoineadh, from which derives the English-language verb keen: to lament or mourn (often with wailing). Caball’s article mentions that following the Flight of the Earls, Eoghan Ruadh Mac an Bhaird, chief poet of the O’Donnell clan or family, composed several such lament lyrics.
Instructions: WORK WITH FELLOW STUDENTS TO DEEPEN UNDERSTANDING • Contribute to the Folio-based group discussion about material (prose and/or poetry and/or images) in Marc Caball’s short article, Dispossession and Reaction: The Gaelic Literati and the Plantation of Ulster (2009), which you studied during Week 1, Unit 4, Task 1 (above). The minimum requirement is threefold: (1) one original contribution from you; (2) a response by you to a post from a fellow student; (2) a response by you to a post from the instructor. Each post should be: (1) between 200 and 500 words long (excluding any quotations); (2) written without spelling or grammatical errors; (3) in accord with the principles and practices of netiquette (being polite and respectful when interacting online).
Below, please find an example of a high-quality submission. It was written by a student, Adesh Khetty, who entered it into the discussion as an original post (i.e. a post that seeks to generate responses from fellow students, as opposed to a post that explicitly responds to comments by another student or the instructor, whether those comments occurred in an original post or a responsive post). Later in the group discussion, Adesh made two responsive posts, neither of which was as long as his original post, featured here.
Ten desirable qualities in Adesh’s post are: (1) it is logically organized, clearly written, and free from spelling and grammatical errors; (2) it does not jump all over the place but instead focuses on one principal matter (the painting featured in Caball’s article); (3) it uses and cites an outside source that is both trustworthy and helpful (Patrick Fitzgerald’s short 2007 History Ireland article); (4) it demonstrates that Adesh has thought about what he wants to say (thus, he avoids last-minute verbal vomit); (5) it deploys, accurately, some terms that Adesh learned in the course up to this point (e.g., “the Gaoidhil”; “the Great Hunger”); (6) it attempts analysis, founded on evidence (e.g., the contention that “leaving Ireland has been central to being Irish”); (7) it provides a relevant personal anecdote (about Adesh’s grandmother) but does not overdo personal content; (8) it stays faithful to our overall theme of the Ulster Scots; (9) it synthesizes material from our course with other valuable material (e.g., the concept of “politics of loss”); (10) it includes a word-count statement.
Estimated time to complete the task: 2 hours (including study of other students’ posts).